“They being, (I doubt not) as ingenious, and happy in their invention, as the best French or Italian of them all”, sans numéro de page. Toutes les références à Minerva Britanna renvoient à l’édition citée en bibliographie, Henry Peacham, Minerva Britanna or a Garden of Heroical Devises furnished and adorned with Emblems and Impresas of sundry natures, newly devised, moralized and published, Londres : W. Dight, 1612.
Keith M. Brown, “The vanishing emperor: British Kingship and its decline 1603-1707” in Roger A. Mason (Dir.), Scots and Britons : Scottish political thought and the union of 1603, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1994, 81.
Philipp Wolf, “The Emergence of National Identity in Early Modern England: Causes and Ideological Representations” in Herbert Grabes (Dir.), Writing the Early Modern English Nation, The Transformations of National Identity in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England, Costerus New Series 137, Rodopi : Amsterdam, 2001, 168.
Henry Peacham, op. cit., “Hence they terme us Tramontani Sempii, Simple and of dull conceipt, when the fault is neither in the Climate, nor as they would have it, in the constitution of our bodies […]”, non paginé.
C. Uhlig, op. cit, 98.
Peacham, op. cit., “[...] nor our Soile so barren as that we neede to borrow from their Sunne-burnt braines, our best Invention”.
Tous les emblèmes proviennent des Special Collections de Middlebury College, reproduits avec l’aimable autorisation de Timothy Billings. Ils sont disponibles à l’adresse suivante, <https://archive.org/details/minervabritannao00peac>, consultée le 9 mai 2015.
Emblème 98, §2 : “[…] that Europe may admire, the gratious Lampe that on thy brow doth shine”.
Jenny Wormald, “The union of 1603”, in Roger A. Mason (Dir.), Scots and Britons : Scottish political thought and the union of 1603, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1994, 22.
Emblème 31, §2 : “Bee thou, as this Port-cullies, unto thine”.
Douglas Bush, Mythology and the Renaissance Tradition in English Poetry, New York : Norton and Company, 1963, 24.
Cité par G. P. Akrigg in “England in 1609”, The Huntington Library Quarterly, Vol. 14, n 1, 1950, 77 : “the largest island in the world”.
Idem, 78 : “the sea serves as a wall”.
John Speed, The Theatre of the Empire Great Britain, 1611, cité par Herbert Grabes in Writing the Early Modern English Nation, The Transformations of National Identity in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England, Costerus New Series 137, Amsterdam : Rodopi, 2001, 176 : “Flourish faire Albion, glory of the North, / Neptunes darling helde between his armes; / Devided from the world as better worth, / Kept for himeselfe, defended from alls harmes”.
Ben Jonson, The Masque of Blackness, 1605. Cité par Keith M. Brown, op. cit, 83 : “a world divided from the world”. On retrouve la même idée chez Shakespeare, notamment dans Richard II (Acte II, scène 1).
William Camden, Britannia, 1607 :“the most famous Iland, without comparison, of the whole world; severed from the continent of Europe by the interflowing of the Ocean”. Source en ligne, <http://www.philological.bham.ac.uk/cambrit>, consultée le 16 octobre 2014.
Samuel Daniel, The order and solemnitie of the creation of the High and mightie Prince Henrie, 1610. “The sweete, and pleasant Shores of Cambria, found / By an unusuall, and most forward Spring / Of comfort, wherewith all things did abound”.
Philipp Wolf, op. cit., 163.
Herbert Grabes, op. cit., 175.
Plus précisément, entre 1535 et 1542, une série d’actes parlementaires furent adoptés afin que le système légal gallois soit annexé au système anglais et qu’un État appelé « Angleterre et Pays de Galles » soit créé. L’Acte pour les Lois & la Justice à être administrés au Pays de Galles comme dans son Royaume a été adopté en 1536 et complété en 1543 par l’Acte sur certaines Ordonnances dans le Dominion et la Principauté de Galles de leurs Majestés.
La Bible de Jérusalem, Paris : Les éditions du Cerf, 1986, I- Corinthiens 3 : 6-7.
Emblème 45, §2 : “While I lay bathed in my native blood / And yeelded nought save harsh, & hellish soundes: / And save from Heaven, I had no hope of good, / Thou pittiedst (Dread Sovereigne) my woundes, / Repair’dst my ruine, and with Ivorie key, / Didst tune my stringes, that slackt or broken lay.”
Michael Drayton, A gratulatorie poem to the majesty of King James. Printed by James Roberts, London, 1603 : “Thy Realme of Ireland, a most fertile Land, / Brought in subjection to thy glorious hand”.
Bruce Galloway, The Union of England and Scotland, 1603-1608 in Irène Carrier, James VI and I, King of Great Britain, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998, 32 : “[…] many of their nobles and principal gentlemen will strive to creep themselves as near the Court as they can. And reason they should for who does not desire the influence of the prince. But our houses, our lands, our livings, shall be brought up in all places, the City and the country shall be replenished with Scots : the Court shall abound with them. And they having the favours of the prince to beg and capacity by the laws to take, shall not only obtain leases and inheritances in all parts of England but the offices of state and government also.”
J. D. Mackie, A History of Scotland, Harmondsworth : Penguin Books, 1978, 174 : “The Scots were aliens in England, and unpopular aliens at that.”
Roger A. Mason, “Scotland, Elizabethan England and the Idea of Britain” in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol. 14, 2004, 280 : “there is clearly a sense in which 1603 was – and perhaps still is – viewed simply as the absorption of Scotland into an expanding English imperial system”.
Emblème 41, §2 : “Which doth declare, how neighbours should unite/ Themselves together, in all friendly love ; / And not like Tyrants, exercise their spight, / On one another, when no cause doth move.”
Jane Dawson, “Anglo-Scottish Protestant culture and integration in sixteenth-century Britain”, in Steven G. Ellis et Sarah Barber (Dir.), Conquest and Union, Fashioning a British State, 1485-1725, New York : Longman, 2001.
J. H. Elliott, “A Europe of Composite Monarchies”, Past and Present, n°137, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992, 52.
C. V. Wedgwood, “Anglo-Scottish Relations (1603-1640)”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Fourth Series, Vol. 32, The Royal Historical Society, 1950, 33.
Diana Newton, The Making of the Jacobean Regime, James VI and I and the government of England 1603-1625, Woodbridge : The Boydell Press, 2005, 99-102.
Irène Carrier, James VI and I, King of Great Britain, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 1998, 34 : “[…] the English are willing to agree, but only on condition that the four great offices of Lord High Constable, Lord Chancellor, Lord Keeper, and Lord Chamberlain shall always be held by the English, and that no Scotsman may be appointed to any English office till the expiry of twelve years[…] The second difficulty is that the English insist that Scottish Peers shall not rank in England, while the Scots claim equal rank for their peerage with that of English […]. The third difficulty is that the English claim that Scotland shall be taxed as England is taxed […]”.
Jenny Wormald, “The Creation of Britain: Multiple Kingdom or Core and Colonies ?”, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, Sixth Series, Vol.2, Royal Historical Society, 1992, 177 : “The union of the crowns of England and Scotland had produced not the child of peace and harmony, but the monstrous progeny of fear and distrust”.
Jane Dawson, op. cit, 107.
Roger A. Mason, op. cit., 281 : “They had experience enough of being, as it were, in bed with an elephant”.
John Gordon, England and Scotlands happinesse in being reduced to vnitie of religion, vnder our invincible monarke King Iames, 1604 : “The people (SIRE) of the Ilands of great Brittaine, were not united in religion, but they have beene long banded one agaynst an other, in a Sea of discords, discentions, and cruell warres, against the decree and lawe of God […]. But now that the light of the Gospell, the true worshippe of one God hath taken lively and sure roote in their heartes under the fortunate raygne of the deceased Queene […] they are become of one heart”.
Carol Z. Wiener, “The Beleaguered Isle : A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism”, Past & Present, n°51, Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1971, 27.
Emblème 11, §2 : “On common foe, let now your force be tri’de”.
Jean Seznec, La Survivance des dieux antiques. Essai sur le rôle de la tradition mythologique dans l’humanisme et dans l’art de la Renaissance. The Warburg Institute, London, 1999, 22.
Emblème 108, §1 : “With haire dishevel’d, and in mournefull wife, / Who spurnes a shippe, with Scepter in her hand : / Thus Britaine’s drawen in old Antiquities, / What time the Romanes, overran her land.”
Certains avancent que la reine et ses deux filles furent violées par des soldats romains et que la reine fut flagellée par la suite, ce qui aurait véritablement déclenché la rébellion.
Celeste Turner Wright, “The Elizabethan Female Worthies”, Studies in Philology, Vol. 43, n°4, University of North Carolina Press, 1946, 631 : “Like Zenobia (or like Elizabeth confronting the Armada), she addressed her army in a warrior’s garb. She led to battle not only men but, perhaps, thousands of female warriors”.
Julie Crawford, “Fletcher’s ‘The Tragedie of Bonducca’ and the Anxieties of the Masculine Government of James I”, Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, Vol. 39, n°2, Tudor and Stuart Drama, 1999, 359 : “Boadicea is in many ways the prototypical Amazonian female worthy and thus the most appropriate and deployable allegorical representation of Queen Elizabeth”.
Celeste Turner Wright, “The Elizabethan Female Worthies”, op. cit., 629.
George L. Mosse, Nationalism and Sexuality : Respectability and Abnormal Sexuality in Modern Europe, New York, Howard Fertig, 1985, in Jodi Mikalachki, “The Masculine Romance of Roman Britain : Cymbeline and Early Modern English Nationalism”, Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 46, n°3, 1995, 306 : “Woman as a national symbol was the guardian of the continuity and immutability of the nation, the embodiment of its respectability”.
Linda Colley, “Mapping British identities : Speed’s Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine”, in David J. Baker et Willy Maley (Dir.), British identities and English Renaissance literature, Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2002, 143.
Sur ce point, voir Sarah Barber, “A State of Britishness ?”, in Steven G. Ellis et Sarah Barber (Dir.), Conquest and Union, Fashioning a British State, 1485-1725, New York : Longman, 2001, 306.Haut de page